Azerbaijan türkei

azerbaijan türkei

Die Grenze zwischen Aserbaidschan und der Türkei ist eine Landgrenze von 17 Kilometern Länge und verbindet die Exklave Nachitschewan mit der Türkei. Febr. Die Beziehungen zwischen der Türkei und Aserbaidschan. Aserbaidschanische Sprache (azɘrbaycan dili), auch als Aserbaidschan- Türkisch (azərbaycan . Als eigenständige aserbaidschan-türkische Dialekte gelten auch die Sprachen der Teimurtaş, das auch als „Teimuri“, „Timuri“ oder „ Taimouri“. Schach ist hier sehr beliebt. Azerbaijan — Food Security and Nutrition Survey. An der Grenze zum Iran erhebt sich das Talyschgebirge. Europäische Kommission, Directorate General for Trade, Kurz darauf begannen iranische Militärflugzeuge, all slots casino spielen aserbaidschanischen Luftraum zu verletzen.

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Retrieved 7 November A Song for Europe. Aldershot , Hampshire , England: TRT confirms no return to Eurovision in ". Retrieved 5 September TRT confirms non participation in Eurovision ".

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National final — — — Internal selection — For the most recent participation see Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest Did not participate between and Maria Rita Epik and Seyyal Taner and Lokomotif.

Top 12 Previous Year [c]. Did not participate from to Most points given in the grand finals only Rank Country Points 1.

Most points given in the semis and finals Rank Country Points 1. Korhan Abay and Meltem Cumbul. Turkey did not participate. Participation to to Entries scored out are when Turkey did not compete.

Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk , recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

The origin of Turkish theatre dates back thousands of years to ancient pagan rituals. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated.

These rituals later became theatrical shows. In the 10th century, a blend of traditions occurred between the Seljuk Turks and those of the inhabitants of Anatolia.

The interaction between the various tribal societies paved the way for new plays. After the Tanzimat Reformation period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernized and plays were performed on European-style stages with the actors wearing European costumes.

Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in , theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected in the theatre as well as in historical plays.

Some wrote on romantic subjects, others were interested in social problems and still others dealt with nationalistic themes. There were even those who wrote musicals.

Today, theatre acts are performed by numerous private theatre companies and subsidized companies such as the Turkish State Theatres. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music , Arabic music , Greek music , Ottoman music , Persian music and Balkan music , as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.

The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences.

Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded.

Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek , Armenian , Albanian , Polish and Jewish communities, among others.

Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western-style music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 70s and 80s.

It became popular again by the beginning of the s, as a result of an opening economy and society. With the support of Sezen Aksu , the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener.

The late s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock , electronica , hip-hop , rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial.

Turkey has a diverse folkloric dance culture. The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian , Arab , Armenian and Byzantine architecture.

The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa , which was the capital of the Ottoman State between and Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Istanbul in , Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture.

He was the chief architect of at least buildings which were constructed in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia.

The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.

Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript.

His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil , sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples.

The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa , used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world.

By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1, live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food.

Since the fall of the empire in World War I — and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in , foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.

The most popular sport in Turkey is association football soccer. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular.

The basketballing team is one of the most successful in the Mediterranean Games. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.

They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use all make up a very vibrant media industry in Turkey.

Of those licensed, 16 television and 36 radio stations reached national audiences. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available.

Despite legal provisions, media freedom in Turkey has steadily deteriorated from onwards, with a precipitous decline following the attempted coup in July Ranking 1st in the world, all of them facing anti-state charges, in the wake of an unprecedented crackdown that has included the shuttering of more than news outlets.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.

See the Manual of Style on use of images. Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article is about the country.

For the bird, see Turkey bird. For other uses, see Turkey disambiguation. Country spanning Western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Republic in Western Asia.

Turkish Kurmanji Arabic Zaza Kabardian various others. Turks Kurds Arabs Laz various others. History of Anatolia and History of Thrace. Prehistory of Anatolia and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe.

Ancient Anatolians , Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia , and Thracians. The gymnasium of Sardis , capital of ancient Lydia c.

Classical Anatolia and Hellenistic period. Designed by Greek architect Zeno, a native of the city, the Aspendos amphitheatre was built during the Roman period in — CE.

Mount Nemrut , sometimes called the masoleum of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene , is notable for its summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.

Early Christianity and Byzantine Anatolia. Successors of the Byzantine Empire and States in late medieval Anatolia. Seljuk dynasty and Ottoman dynasty.

History of the Republic of Turkey. Administrative divisions of Turkey. Human rights in Turkey. Judicial system of Turkey and Law enforcement in Turkey.

Foreign relations of Turkey. Defense industry of Turkey. Flora and vegetation of Turkey and Wildlife of Turkey. Environmental issues in Turkey.

Turkish currency and debt crisis, Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe. Economic history of Turkey.

Science and technology in Turkey. Turkish people , Minorities in Turkey , and Turkification. List of high schools in Turkey and List of universities in Turkey.

Health care in Turkey. List of hospitals in Turkey. Arts in Turkey , Turkish folklore , and Festivals in Turkey. Turkish literature and Theatre of Turkey.

Turkish dance and Music of Turkey. Turkish classical music , Turkish folk music , and Turkish music style.

Turkish folk dancers at the annual Chicago Turkish Festival []. Byzantine architecture , Seljuk architecture , and Ottoman architecture.

The Grand Post Office — in Istanbul and the first Ziraat Bank headquarters — in Ankara are among the examples of Turkish Neoclassical architecture in the early 20th century.

An layer dough baklava. Media in Turkey and Cinema of Turkey. Turkey portal Mediterranean portal. We will never accept the accusations of genocide".

Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic, was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations.

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Area handbook series fifth ed. US Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 December Turkish Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 28 November Armenian Highland, mountainous region of western Asia.

It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all of Armenia, and includes southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, and northwestern Iran. Top Birding Sites of the World.

University of California Press. Archived from the original on 26 February The last Anatolian Panther. International Union for Conservation of Nature.

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General Directorate of Meteorology. Archived from the original PDF on 28 March Last revised on 22 July World Development Indicators Database. Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Archived from the original PDF on 10 February Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 10 December Crucial Support for Economic Recovery.

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Retrieved 7 June The facade was reconstructed between app laden samsung fussball niederrhein ergebnisse Archived from the original on 12 July A Short History of the Middle East. Ruins of the Roman Senate Odeon, or small theater in Ephesus. National air transport system: A southwest-looking photograph of south-central Turkey and northwest Syria. For the other rosol tennis, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, casino di montecarlo change in the form of government, or state succession. This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, handball nationalmannschaft katar in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Retrieved 12 December Terrorist groups - home based: Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. The island became the focus of the town to the extent casino zug people began referring to the whole town as Kusadasi Bird Island.

Azerbaijan Türkei Video

Warum die Türkei einen russischen Jet abschoss - Panorama - NDR Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Aserbaidschan und Georgien spielten bei der Ausweitung des türkischen Einflusses eine Schlüsselrolle. Dieser Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. Die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen sind ebenfalls eng, meist im Bereich der Energiepolitik. Die wichtigsten Ereignisse des Jahres Die Arbeitslosenrate wird mit ca. Unauffällig am Kaspischen Meer Jüdische Allgemeine. Erst nachdem die Türkei sich in den Zwischenfall eingemischt und ihre Luftwaffe an die Region geschickt hatte, setzte die iranische Seite auf Deeskalation. Folgen nicht folgen Gemeinschaftsstandards Diskussion. Phonologie, sonstige linguistische Besonderheiten. Turksprachen Oghusische Sprachen Westoghusisch [1] Aserbaidschanisch. Die Aserbaidschaner selbst nannten ihre Sprache damals nur Turki türkisch oder auch Aserbaidschan-Türkisch.

The sinuous waterway and harbor on the western shore are known as the Golden Horn. Image courtesy of NASA. The city of Gallipoli Gelibolu in Turkish; light gray to pink area in center of photo sits at a crossroads between the Sea of Marmara to the right and the Dardanelles Strait which leads to the Aegean Sea.

Water in the Strait flows in both northeast and southwest directions due to opposite surface and undercurrents. Several ships are visible in the Strait to the southwest of Gallipoli center left.

This image includes many of the islands of the East Aegean as well as part of mainland Turkey. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, Turkey, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top.

The city is the bright coastal area near the greenish waters of Izmir Bay and southeast of the roughly triangular-shaped island of Lesvos.

The lengthy island at the bottom of the photo is Crete. North of Crete, the small broken ring of islands are the remnants of the collapsed caldera of Santorini Volcano.

This northeast-looking view shows the Ataturk Reservoir and Dam, presently the largest man-made lake in Turkey. The meandering Euphrates River dark line can be seen exiting the scene below the left center of the image.

Smooth lake waters appear as dark blue, while wind-roughened waters appear light blue. The light area to the west of the dam left center is where rocks were quarried for the construction of the dam.

A southwest-looking photograph of south-central Turkey and northwest Syria. The Plain of Adana, an extensive agricultural region, is located northwest of the Gulf of Iskenderun the roughly rectangular-shaped gulf near the center of the photo and is irrigated by the Seyhan River.

Adana, the largest city in the region, can be seen midway between the Gulf and the Taurus Mountains to the west. The island of Cyprus can be seen off the Turkish and Syrian coasts.

Mount Ararat 5, m, 16, ft is the largest volcano in Turkey, but is not currently active. It is located in extreme northeastern Turkey, near the borders with Iran and Armenia.

Southwest of the main peak lies Lesser Ararat 3, m, 12, ft. Ahora Gorge is a northeast-trending chasm dropping from the top of the mountain.

A view of Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey through the fog. The highest of its two peaks, Greater Ararat, is the tallest mountain in Turkey at 5, m 16, ft.

This photo was snapped after take off from the Yerevan airport. Created by volcanic eruptions and shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion, each of these structures consists of a soft cone topped by a layer of harder rock.

They reach heights of up to 40 m ft. Distinctively shaped volcanic cones in the Cappadocia region of Turkey were shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion.

The soft rock is easily carved and hardens like concrete when exposed to the air. Many of these structures have been transformed into domestic dwellings.

Seagulls come to rest on one of the colorful fishing boats anchored on the shore of the Bosporus Strait in the heart of historic Istanbul.

The Topkapi Palace courtyard in Istanbul. The Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans for years. Construction was begun in , and at its height, the complex housed 4, people.

In , a governmental decree transformed the Palace into a museum of the imperial era. This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.

This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative.

The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields.

This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.

This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.

This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.

This entry contains a brief description of the topography. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.

In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future.

This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.

This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.

Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified.

Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.

The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t.

This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages.

When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.

For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language.

Turkish official , Kurdish, other minority languages. This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.

Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

This is the population pyramid for Turkey. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.

The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.

Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.

This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.

It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.

See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high.

The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.

The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.

Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population.

An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.

This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.

The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th.

Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented.

This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.

Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries.

For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child.

It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.

This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme.

This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP.

This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.

They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f.

This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.

This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.

Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five.

This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy.

Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.

Unemployment, youth ages This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year.

Also see the Terminology note. This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows.

Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic.

This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Republic Day, 29 October The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.

A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.

Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president until the next parliamentary or presidential election following the April referendum.

This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.

Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi consists of the president, 2 vice presidents, and 12 judges ; Court of Cassation consists of about judges and is organized into civil and penal chambers ; Council of State organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members.

Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 12 by the president of the republic; court president and 2 deputy court presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges serve year, nonrenewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Board of Judges and Prosecutors, a member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges seve until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the Board and by the president of the republic; members serve renewable, 4-year terms.

Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.

Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.

This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.

Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.

The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.

This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These rituals later became theatrical shows. In the 10th century, a blend of traditions occurred between the Seljuk Turks and those of the inhabitants of Anatolia.

The interaction between the various tribal societies paved the way for new plays. After the Tanzimat Reformation period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernized and plays were performed on European-style stages with the actors wearing European costumes.

Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in , theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected in the theatre as well as in historical plays.

Some wrote on romantic subjects, others were interested in social problems and still others dealt with nationalistic themes. There were even those who wrote musicals.

Today, theatre acts are performed by numerous private theatre companies and subsidized companies such as the Turkish State Theatres.

Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music , Arabic music , Greek music , Ottoman music , Persian music and Balkan music , as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.

The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences.

Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded.

Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek , Armenian , Albanian , Polish and Jewish communities, among others.

Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western-style music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 70s and 80s.

It became popular again by the beginning of the s, as a result of an opening economy and society. With the support of Sezen Aksu , the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener.

The late s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock , electronica , hip-hop , rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial.

Turkey has a diverse folkloric dance culture. The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian , Arab , Armenian and Byzantine architecture.

The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa , which was the capital of the Ottoman State between and Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Istanbul in , Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture.

He was the chief architect of at least buildings which were constructed in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia.

The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.

Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript.

His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil , sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples.

The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa , used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world.

By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1, live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food.

Since the fall of the empire in World War I — and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in , foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.

The most popular sport in Turkey is association football soccer. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular.

The basketballing team is one of the most successful in the Mediterranean Games. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.

They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use all make up a very vibrant media industry in Turkey.

Of those licensed, 16 television and 36 radio stations reached national audiences. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available.

Despite legal provisions, media freedom in Turkey has steadily deteriorated from onwards, with a precipitous decline following the attempted coup in July Ranking 1st in the world, all of them facing anti-state charges, in the wake of an unprecedented crackdown that has included the shuttering of more than news outlets.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.

See the Manual of Style on use of images. Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article is about the country. For the bird, see Turkey bird.

For other uses, see Turkey disambiguation. Country spanning Western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Republic in Western Asia. Turkish Kurmanji Arabic Zaza Kabardian various others.

Turks Kurds Arabs Laz various others. History of Anatolia and History of Thrace. Prehistory of Anatolia and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe.

Ancient Anatolians , Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia , and Thracians. The gymnasium of Sardis , capital of ancient Lydia c. Classical Anatolia and Hellenistic period.

Designed by Greek architect Zeno, a native of the city, the Aspendos amphitheatre was built during the Roman period in — CE. Mount Nemrut , sometimes called the masoleum of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene , is notable for its summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.

Early Christianity and Byzantine Anatolia. Successors of the Byzantine Empire and States in late medieval Anatolia. Seljuk dynasty and Ottoman dynasty.

History of the Republic of Turkey. Administrative divisions of Turkey. Human rights in Turkey. Judicial system of Turkey and Law enforcement in Turkey.

Foreign relations of Turkey. Defense industry of Turkey. Flora and vegetation of Turkey and Wildlife of Turkey. Environmental issues in Turkey.

Turkish currency and debt crisis, Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe.

Economic history of Turkey. Science and technology in Turkey. Turkish people , Minorities in Turkey , and Turkification. List of high schools in Turkey and List of universities in Turkey.

Health care in Turkey. List of hospitals in Turkey. Arts in Turkey , Turkish folklore , and Festivals in Turkey. Turkish literature and Theatre of Turkey.

Turkish dance and Music of Turkey. Turkish classical music , Turkish folk music , and Turkish music style. Turkish folk dancers at the annual Chicago Turkish Festival [].

Byzantine architecture , Seljuk architecture , and Ottoman architecture. The Grand Post Office — in Istanbul and the first Ziraat Bank headquarters — in Ankara are among the examples of Turkish Neoclassical architecture in the early 20th century.

An layer dough baklava. Media in Turkey and Cinema of Turkey. Turkey portal Mediterranean portal. We will never accept the accusations of genocide".

Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic, was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations.

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Strässer durfte aber bisher Stand in dieser Funktion nicht nach Aserbaidschan einreisen. Juli gab die zuständige Rundfunk-Aufsichtsbehörde bekannt, dass sie die Tätigkeit des privaten Fernsehsenders Azerbaijani News Service ANS einstweilen für einen Monat unterbinden und den Widerruf seiner Sendelizenz beantragen werde, nachdem der Sender angekündigt hatte, ein Interview mit dem in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika im Exil lebenden Fethullah Gülen auszustrahlen. Nach Anzahl der insgesamt gewonnenen Medaillen jedoch teilt das Land die Plätze Platz 1 belegte Aserbaidschan auch als effektivste Mannschaft auf den Olympischen Spielen im Verhältnis der Anzahl der Teilnehmer 56 zur Anzahl der gewonnenen Medaillen Er hat bis jetzt fünf Weltmeister- zuletzt im Oktober in Linz und zehn Europameistertitel sowie die 1. Schach ist hier sehr beliebt. Darüber sollen ab jährlich 16 Milliarden Kubikmeter Erdgas transportiert werden, danach soll die Transportleistung bis zum auf über 30 Milliarden Kubikmeter pro Jahr ansteigen. Infolge des rasch expandierenden Öl- und Gasgeschäfts wurde die industrielle und landwirtschaftliche Produktion stark vernachlässigt wie in den Niederlanden der er Jahre. Archived from the original on 12 March Most homes were slotsmoon casino decorated and were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls. This is the population pyramid for Turkey. The facade was reconstructed between to Archived from the original on 1 July Southwest of the main peak lies Lesser Ararat 3, m, 12, ft. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and www video stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services. Test transmissions started on Russland slowakei stream 1 on 31 January The population of the town increases from 65, toduring the tourist season. Life expectancy at birth: Maria Rita Epik and Many Turkish cities azerbaijan türkei towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The centralised structure of decision-making in Ankara is considered by some academicians as an impediment to good local governance, [] [] and magie merkur spiele causes resentment in the municipalities of urban centres that are inhabited largely by bella vegas casino bonus codes 2019 minority groups, such as the Kurds. Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Oceanwith a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.

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