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Another common reason to use a colon is to introduce a complete quotation , especially if a reporting verb such as said, told, asked etc.
Remember that we only use a colon after an independent introductory clause; if the text before the quotation is a fragment, then we must either use a comma if a reporting verb is used or no punctuation at all, or else rewrite the sentence.
Note that while it is optional to capitalize the first letter after a colon when introducing non-quoted sentences, we should always capitalize the first letter when we introduce a quoted sentence.
In addition to its grammatical function of introducing lists or illustrative information, the colon is also used for a number of technical, non-grammatical reasons in writing.
One of the most common technical uses for a colon is when writing the time numerically. The colon is placed between the numbers representing the hour and the minutes of that hour without any spaces , as in:.
Another situation in which we might write time numerically is when indicating how much time is remaining for something to occur, such as for a timer or countdown.
Colons are also used with numeric writing when we want to express a ratio between two amounts. One specific use of the colon is to indicate the specific verses that appear in a chapter of the Bible.
Similar to how we write numerical times and ratios, we place the colon between the number of the chapter and the number of the verse s , with no spaces in between.
We also use colons to indicate a page or range of pages from a volume of an academic journal. It is formatted in the same way as when we cite a chapter and verse s from the Bible except the title of the journal is in italics:.
Note that there are other uses for colons when creating longer citations for academic writing. You should check the style guide used by your academic institution for the proper way to format your citation, as the specific styles vary quite a bit.
In written correspondence, especially in business, we sometimes use a colon after a formal salutation the introduction that includes the name or title of the recipient.
Please remember to bring your swimsuit to the party! One final use of the colon occurs in written dialogue between two or more people, most often in transcripts of plays or legal testimony in a courtroom.
We place the colon immediately after the name of the speaker which is often in all capital letters , followed by the dialogue without quotation marks.
In a play, if there is any stage direction or other information about the character, it appears in parentheses immediately before the colon.
Tell the court again your whereabouts on the evening of August 12, Whenever we use a colon except when writing times, ratios, or citations , it will be followed by a single space before the list or other information.
When typewriters were used, it was common practice to place two spaces after a colon to make the writing clearer. It is often used as a single post-fix delimiter , signifying a token keyword had immediately preceded it or the transition from one mode of character string interpretation to another related mode.
Some applications, such as the widely used MediaWiki , utilize the colon as both a pre-fix and post-fix delimiter.
In wiki markup , the colon is often used to indent text. Common usage includes separating or marking comments in a discussion as replies see WP: The colon is quite often used as a special control character in URLs ,  computer programming languages , in the path representation of several file systems such as FAT, following the drive letter, as in C: In an IPv6 address colons and one optional double colon separate up to 8 groups of 16 bits in hexadecimal representation.
In BASIC , it is used as a separator between the statements or instructions in a single line, which is represented in other languages via the semicolon.
In Forth , a colon precedes definition of a new word. Haskell uses a colon pronounced as " cons ", short for "construct" as an operator to add an element to the front of a list: MATLAB uses the colon as a binary operator that generates vectors, as well as to select particular portions of existing matrices.
In Python , which uses indentation to indicate blocks, the colon is used in statements to indicate that the next line is the start of an indented block.
APL uses the colon . On the Internet , a colon, or multiple colons, is sometimes used to denote an action similar to how asterisks are used [ original research?
In the action denotation usage it has the inverse function of quotation marks, denoting actions where unmarked text is assumed to be dialogue.
Colons may also be used for sounds, e. Colons can also be used to represent eyes in emoticons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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The gap increases with colon number. Georgia College Writing Center. Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 25 February Italiano comune e lingua letteraria.
Suoni, forme, costrutti in Italian. Retrieved 28 July An empirical correlate of scholarship". A Century of Scholarly Progress: The Journal of Higher Education.
New Zealand Journal of Psychology. Historically, it has been believed that the arc of Riolan, or the meandering mesenteric artery of Moskowitz , is a variable vessel connecting the proximal SMA to the proximal IMA that can be extremely important if either vessel is occluded.
However, recent studies conducted with improved imaging technology have questioned the actual existence of this vessel, with some experts calling for the abolition of the terms from future medical literature.
Venous drainage usually mirrors colonic arterial supply, with the inferior mesenteric vein draining into the splenic vein , and the superior mesenteric vein joining the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein that then enters the liver.
Lymphatic drainage from the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon is to the colic lymph nodes and the superior mesenteric lymph nodes , which drain into the cisterna chyli.
One variation on the normal anatomy of the colon occurs when extra loops form, resulting in a colon that is up to five metres longer than normal.
This condition, referred to as redundant colon , typically has no direct major health consequences, though rarely volvulus occurs, resulting in obstruction and requiring immediate medical attention.
The wall of the large intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelium with invaginations. The invaginations are called the intestinal glands or colonic crypts.
The colon crypts are shaped like microscopic thick walled test tubes with a central hole down the length of the tube the crypt lumen.
Four tissue sections are shown here, two cut across the long axes of the crypts and two cut parallel to the long axes.
In these images the cells have been stained by immunohistochemistry to show a brown-orange color if the cells produce a mitochondrial protein called cytochrome c oxidase subunit I CCOI.
The nuclei of the cells located at the outer edges of the cells lining the walls of the crypts are stained blue-gray with haematoxylin.
As seen in panels C and D, crypts are about 75 to about cells long. Thus, by the images shown here, there are an average of about 1, to cells per colonic crypt.
Cells are produced at the crypt base and migrate upward along the crypt axis before being shed into the colonic lumen days later.
As estimated from the image in panel A, there are about colonic crypts per square millimeter of the colonic epithelium. In the four tissue sections shown here, many of the intestinal glands have cells with a mitochondrial DNA mutation in the CCOI gene and appear mostly white, with their main color being the blue-gray staining of the nuclei.
Crypts of the colon can reproduce by fission, as seen in panel C, where a crypt is fissioning to form two crypts, and in panel B where at least one crypt appears to be fissioning.
About of the many thousands of protein coding genes expressed in the large intestine, some are specific to the mucous membrane in different regions and include CEACAM7.
The large intestine absorbs water and any remaining absorbable nutrients from the food before sending the indigestible matter to the rectum.
The colon absorbs vitamins that are created by the colonic bacteria, such as vitamin K especially important as the daily ingestion of vitamin K is not normally enough to maintain adequate blood coagulation , thiamine and riboflavin.
Chloride secretion increases in cystic fibrosis. Recycling of various nutrients takes place in colon. Examples include fermentation of carbohydrates, short chain fatty acids, and urea cycling.
The appendix contains a small amount of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue which gives the appendix an undetermined role in immunity.
However, the appendix is known to be important in fetal life as it contains endocrine cells that release biogenic amines and peptide hormones important for homeostasis during early growth and development.
At this point some electrolytes like sodium , magnesium , and chloride are left as well as indigestible parts of ingested food e. As the chyme moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is removed, while the chyme is mixed with mucus and bacteria known as gut flora , and becomes feces.
The ascending colon receives fecal material as a liquid. The muscles of the colon then move the watery waste material forward and slowly absorb all the excess water, causing the stools to gradually solidify as they move along into the descending colon.
The bacteria break down some of the fiber for their own nourishment and create acetate , propionate , and butyrate as waste products, which in turn are used by the cell lining of the colon for nourishment.
The large intestine  produces no digestive enzymes — chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine.
The pH in the colon varies between 5. Water absorption at the colon typically proceeds against a transmucosal osmotic pressure gradient.
The standing gradient osmosis is the reabsorption of water against the osmotic gradient in the intestines. Cells occupying the intestinal lining pump sodium ions into the intercellular space, raising the osmolarity of the intercellular fluid.
This hypertonic fluid creates an osmotic pressure that drives water into the lateral intercellular spaces by osmosis via tight junctions and adjacent cells, which then in turn moves across the basement membrane and into the capillaries , while more sodium ions are pumped again into the intercellular fluid.
This allows the large intestine to absorb water despite the blood in capillaries being hypotonic compared to the fluid within the intestinal lumen.
The large intestine houses over species of bacteria that perform a variety of functions, as well as fungi , protozoa , and archaea. Species diversity varies by geography and diet.
This mass of mostly symbiotic microbes has recently been called the latest human organ to be "discovered" or in other words, the "forgotten organ".
The large intestine absorbs some of the products formed by the bacteria inhabiting this region. Undigested polysaccharides fiber are metabolized to short-chain fatty acids by bacteria in the large intestine and absorbed by passive diffusion.
The bicarbonate that the large intestine secretes helps to neutralize the increased acidity resulting from the formation of these fatty acids.
These bacteria also produce large amounts of vitamins , especially vitamin K and biotin a B vitamin , for absorption into the blood.
Although this source of vitamins, in general, provides only a small part of the daily requirement, it makes a significant contribution when dietary vitamin intake is low.
An individual who depends on absorption of vitamins formed by bacteria in the large intestine may become vitamin-deficient if treated with antibiotics that inhibit the vitamin producing species of bacteria as well as the intended disease-causing bacteria.
Other bacterial products include gas flatus , which is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide , with small amounts of the gases hydrogen , methane , and hydrogen sulfide.
Bacterial fermentation of undigested polysaccharides produces these. Some of the fecal odor is due to indoles , metabolized from the amino acid tryptophan.
The normal flora is also essential in the development of certain tissues, including the cecum and lymphatics. They are also involved in the production of cross-reactive antibodies.
These are antibodies produced by the immune system against the normal flora, that are also effective against related pathogens, thereby preventing infection or invasion.